WHAT WAS THE DEPARTING KICK OF BRITISH?
Gandhi had expressed that he was deadly against partition.
British had sent Crips Commission who was to discuss the partition conditions. It was not to discuss any other options.
MK Gandhi who was the invited member to participate to help the Congress in presenting the case as to how to achieve freedom. But the way the British framed the basic conditions for independence was not acceptable to MK Gandhi. MK Gandhi asked Congress working committee to pass a resolution to boycott the Cripps Commission.
The Congress members did not agree to the advice of MK Gandhi. At that stage MK Gandhi said loudly that had been my Subhas here, he would have definitely obeyed my advice of boycotting the commission. MK Gandhi further said, when the committee members are determined to accept the partition, I cannot be a member of that committee. He boycotted the commission by resigning from the commission. I would not be a party in dividing India. Then MK Gandhi said “No body in Congress is ready to discuss with me and even no body in Congress is ready to hear me”.
This was the time when the leaders who were outside the Congress, should have stand by the side of Mahatma Gandhi firmly. But they did not. They were either divided or confused. No body stood by the side of MK Gandhi to support him.
The call of “Direct Action” given by Jinnah had made most leaders to realize the inevitability of division of India. People were also of the opinion that there was no option but to accept partition.
MK Gandhi too realized the necessity of partition, at that moment of time under “the Call of Direct Action” and the decisive approach of British Government and Muslim league leaders. Jinna was of the opinion that Muslims are different culture and there by different nation. Muslim needs a separate nation. Congress and MK Gandhi were not for to accept the theory of two nations. Once Gandhi asked Jinna if you become Hindu, in what way your culture would be different than a Hindu. Jinna could not reply to MK Gandhi. It was an historical truth that the origin of most Muslims in India is Hindu. Those who are not, they have also adopted the Hindu culture.
What were the other options for independence of India?
THE OTHER OPTION WAS “FEDERAL UNION”
What meaning of “Federal Union”?
The meaning of Federal Union was to be worked out. As a simple meaning of Federal Union was a Union of Pakistan and India. Pakistan and India were to exists under the Federal Union, but India and Pakistan were to get autonomy in certain fields of governance. It was possible to pressurize British on the option of “Federal Un ion” had the proposal been made unanimously.
The British was firm in saying that the independence means to leave India with making proper arrangement and provision in a treaty that shows that they have cared to provide security and rights of all the communities of India.
FEDERAL UNION COULD NOT GET MATERIALIZED
The characters in dealing with the proposal for Federal Union were JL Nehru, Sardar Patel, MK Gandhi and Mhammeda Ali Jinna. It was not possible and advisable to call them at one place and to conduct the discussion. This was because it was a matter of confidentiality. Its premature disclosure can create a lot of problems. British can exploit the matter for instigating different community leaders indirectly to play decisive role. Bhulabhai Desai was the messenger. He was meeting and trying for consensus with Jinna, MK Gandhi, JL Nehru and Sardar Patel to make them agreeable on Federal Proposal.
Bhulabhai Desai met Sardar Patel and MK Gandhi. They were agreed to it. Then Bhulabhai Desai met Jinna. Jinna too agreed to it in principle. Bhulabhai Desai met JL Nehru. He totally disagreed to the proposal of Federal Union. JL Nehru out rightly rejected the proposal.
MK Gandhi was ready for Federal Union. It was the Semi Undivided India. i.e. It was united India. It was also divided India.
Then Sardar Patel went to JL Nehru to understand as to why had JL Nehru straight way rejected the idea of Federal Union.
Sardar Patel learnt that JL Nehru had a thought that it was highly possible that MK Gandhi would select Jinna as the head of Federal Union and he would have to work under Jinna. JL Nehru had allergy of Jinna. (Earlier at one stage Nehru had declared that if Jinna agrees to Undivided India, then he would not appoint Jinna even as his peon.)
However Sardar Patel reviewed the other factors. These were about the character and likely aptitude of the kings and kingdoms. Many of the kings were greedy and prone to get instigated for their own freedom and conditions. It was a matter of a lengthy and time consuming frame work for preparing accession or amalgamation conditions. Besides this the presence of decisive British was also there. They were keen to instigate self-centered and communal leaders to divide India in many other pieces. That is why MK Gandhi and Sardar Patel thought to divide India in two nations to avoid India, breaking in multiple pieces.
BRITISH WANTED TO DIVIDE INDIA IN MULTIPLE PIECES
India, Pakistan and the kingdoms. As for the people of Kingdoms, they may decide at a later stage either they would remain as an independent kingdom or they may conduct plebiscite as to affiliate with whom. British said “We would provide the independence to the kings for their kingdom. We give them two option. They can remain independent. They can have accession either with India or Pakistan by adopting a fair plebiscite.”
MK Gandhi was of the opinion, that it was the Muslim leaders who were keen to divide India. As for Congress, the leaders were not ready to delay the independence any more. British were ever ready to spoil the situation. Gandhi and Sardar thought, it would be better to accept the independence with divided India. In democracy, the real power belongs to the people. It would be better to try for reunion at later stage.
MK Gandhi had foreseen the likely massacre to some extent after partition. He tried his best to prevent them and to build unity. He had gone on fast to establish peace. The peace was urged to both the people of both the communities. But some took it one sided without going through the details.
MK Gandhi wanted to visit Pakistan to try to reunite the nation. He wanted to see that the peace get established at least in Delhi. Because if both the community have no faith in each other they cannot reunite.
WISDOM-LESS, SELFISH CONGRESS LEADERS
MK Gandhi was very much upset, when he learnt that the leaders of Congress who belonged to the region of Pakistan had run to India instead of staying in Pakistan for enforcing harmony with Muslims.
When Gandhi aksed them, the Congress leaders said “our life was not safe”.
MK Gandhi said, “So what? I have taught you to be brave and fearless. I have taught you to be ready to sacrifice everything. I have taught you to die. I have not taught you to run away. You are all coward. Had you been killed there, I would have been pleased a lot. I would have danced on hearing the news of your death. I would have really danced a lot.”
Now those who are having mindset to abuse MK Gandhi, they take the above Spell outs as that has been spelled out before Hindus who ran towards India. In fact the words were spelled out before Congress leaders of Pakistan.
MK Gandhi wanted the Congress leaders to remain in Pakistan. Had the people of Congress been nationalist, they would have remained in Pakistan. They could have formed a political party named “Pakistan National Congress”.
Look at the Muslim leaders. Many of them remained in India and formed an Indian Muslim League. The decisive Nehruvian Congress has joined the hands with the Indian Muslim League since 1958. There are lots of Muslim Organizations in India. It is only Nehruvian Congress who instigated Muslims to remain isolated from Hindus.
Soon MK Gandhi experienced that many Congress leaders were exerting pressure on him to get some position in the new government. Not only this but the leaders who to had deserted Pakistan, and had come to India to share the power. MK Gandhi publically declared to dissolve Congress.
“Diary of Last three months of Gandhi in Delhi” written by Manuben Gandhi, provides the full information on the role played by MK Gandhi. There is a day to day diary of MK Gandhi’s last three months in Delhi before he was killed. Manuben Gandhi has given report day to day and word to word. Those who read MK Gandhi would never carry a feeling that MK Gandhi had any attitude to appease Muslims and Muslims leaders. Instead he appears to be deadly against Muslim leaders. He has at one stage said that if Pakistan is not capable to provide proper securities to Hindus, India should attack on Pakistan and take over Pakistan.
WHO WAS DANGEROUS FOR MK GANDHI? JINNA OR JL NEHRU?
Yes. It was JL Nehru who was more dangerous.
No provincial party committee had suggested the name of JL Nehru for PM’s post. Nehru declared before MK Gandhi that he want to head the government, then Gandhi told him that none of the provincial party committee and the CM has suggested his name.
It was the moral duty of JL Nehru to withdraw his name. But instead of doing that, he kept mum and silently left the room. MK Gandhi thought that Nehru is likely to do some adventure. This adventure would break the Congress party at that crucial stage when the separatists including British were working hard to weaken the Congress. MK Gandhi called Sardar Patel and got an assurance that Sardar Patel would see that Congress remained united.
It is needless to say that JL Nehru had already created a socialistic Group within Congress with a freedom to abuse other Congress leaders like Rajgopalachari, Sardar Patel etc…
MK Gandhi knew that in democracy nothing is final. Let JL Nehru be the PM, till the general elections under new constitution gets conducted.
But unfortunate to India, MK Gandhi was murdered, Sardar died before general elections. JL Nehru used media to divert the attention of public from his failure in external affairs, his failures in planning and wisdom-less vision. It is a matter of surprise and a matter of research as to how the learned people made no noise.
JL Nehru had become intolerant and autocrat. He became hungry of power. JL Nehru himself has written this, for himself to have a fun on himself.
A good opportunity had come, to have Federal Union. Iskandar Mirza had proposed for “Federal Union, in 1955. It was a good and proper time when everything was OK locally. The people who left their property in Pakistan were alive and this issue was also alive. Pakistan was ready to resolve this issue bilaterally. But JL Nehru indecently rejected the proposal of “Federal Union” without discussing it at any level.
WERE THEY DEAF AND DUMB?
The learned people including the learned people talking too much till date for passing blame on MK Gandhi for partition. They are feeling great for themselves for this, but they kept mum instead of calling for a strong agitation for Federal Union in 1955. Federal Union was the first step toward Undivided India. Most of the leaders who had abused Congress and MK Gandhi for passing the blame of dividing India, were very well alive and capable to launch wide spread agitation in favor of “Federal Union” in nineteen fifties. They never agitated for Federal Union, even that proposal had come up from the Pakistan. Not only this, these leaders had kept mum even on the absolute blunders of JL Nehru on external affairs related with Tibet, China and Burma in nineteen fifties.
Was it difficult for them? Was it that these were political issue and thereby they (RSS) cannot take part in politics?
It was never difficult for them. It was not a politics. It was related with and great concern with humanity and national interest. Despite of this they behaved like deaf and dumb.
It was not that there were no agitation during 1950-1960. It was not that that RSS was less popular. In fact at most of the school compound and street, RSS was running RSS Shaakhaa. Golvalkar was also alive. A lot of other agitations took place during 1951 to 1960. But none tried either for Federal Union nor against the Himalayan Blunders of JL Nehru.
The victory of Nehruvian Congress in 1952 was fraudulent. The victory of Nehruvian Congress was a fraud. But the defeat of pro-RSS parties made their leaders weak and frustrated. They achieve some confidence only when Nava Nirman agitation unseated the Nehruvian Congress party in 1974. The Nehruvian Congress party had earlier 140 seats in Assembly out of 168 in 1972 assembly elections.
It is needless to say that it was Jai Prakash Narain a veteran Mahatma Gandhian who lead the agitation against Nehruvian Congress and defeated Nehruvian Congress badly in 1977. The inaction and frustration of worthless leaders of RSS, VHP, BD and some leaders like Advani, Sushma, Murlimanohar gave life to Nehruvian Congress.
WHY MK GANDHI DID NOT GO ON FAST?
Shirish Mohanlal Dave
Tags: Nehruvian Congress, Federal Union, kings, kingdom, Cripp’s Commission, Gandhi, Bhulabhai Desai, Sardar Patel, RSS, VHP, BD, leaders