Posts Tagged ‘kingdom’

M. M. Dave the Great


Yes. M. M. Dave is my father’s name. As per my opinion, he was a great person. It is not because he was my father. Had he been not my father, but if, I would have come across to him to analyze him, I would have kept him at the top.

How much great was he? As per my opinion, if somebody asks my opinion as to who is greater between M. K. Gandhi and my father, I would have said it was my father who was quite greater than Mahatma Gandhi.

If we want to analyze a person for its greatness, following points need to be taken into account.

  1. Sacrifice of the person,
  2. The morality and Devotion towards duty,
  3. The skill of the person,
  4. The logical approach of the person,
  5.  M. M. Dave was great under the afore said criteria.


Is it that my father was great due to some inherited property of my grandfather? Yes. I think so.

My father was the only survived son of my grandfather. He had two sisters, one elder and one younger.

My grandfather was a Sanskrit Scholar of Kashi Vidyapith. His subjects were Astrology (ज्योतिष), Religious rituals (कर्मकान्ड) and philosophy (तत्त्वज्ञान).

I had a great respect for my grandfather. My grandfather died during 1944 at the age of nearly 80+ years, when I was hardly four years.

My grandfather was better known by his name Mahashankar Shastri, though his surname was Dave (Dvivedi). Mahashankar Shastri was a big and honorable name in the kingdom of Lunavada. Lunavada was a small state of Gujarat.  Lunavada considered to be the “SMALL KASHI (छोटा काशी) of Gujarat, because it had the Brahmins knowing all the four Vedas.

MAX MULLAR had visited Lunavada and had met my grandfather. My grandfather was conservative but appeared to be a logical person. He believed in maintaining traditions, but he was of the opinion that the Astrology does not tell the future. What is told as a forecast, it is to be taken as a blessing of the astrologer who studied the mathematics of the movements of planets in the sky in relations to the star clusters.  For keeping this mathematics alive, the tradition of preparing a Horoscope was introduced.



My father was born in Lunavada on 9th November 1909 (10th day of Krishna Paksha of Ashvin of Vikram Era). He died on 2nd April 1996 peacefully.


It was the period of 1918, M. M. Dave my father passed his  4th standard of the primary school. At that time there were two options, either to go ahead with the same school upto 7th Standard and then to go to the Primary Teaching Training College for further study for 3 years, or to join 1st standard of English school for matriculation and then to a college of Bombay university.


My grandfather was of the opinion that the British would leave India sooner or later.  English would also go with them from India. English would be replaced by Sanskrit. Hence, his son (my father), should join “Sanskrit Path Shala of Lunavada”. His desire was, his son should become scholar in Sanskrit. He should go to Kashi for further study.

My father said he would prefer English, but he would not ignore Sanskrit. He would join English School. He would also join the Sanskrit Pathshala on part time basis. My grandfather agreed to it conditionally.

My grandfather put conditions;

That his son would keep Shikhaa (शिखा),

That his son would keep Mundan [(मुन्डन) and would remain clean shaved. i.e. no hair on the head accept Shikhaa शिखा),

That his son keep his head covered with either turban (दक्षिणी पगडी)] or a black cap (काली टोपी),

That his son would keep him self dressed in dhoti (धोती) and never put on payjama (पायजामा), 

The child M. M. Dave my father agreed to all these conditions. At a later stage my grandfather gave some relaxation e.g. from turban and cap.


People had a simple life. Though there was no scarcity of the food grains, but the large common mass was several miles away from a simple luxury. When my grandfather went to Rangoon for performing some Yajna (यज्ञ), his family in India, was in a hand to mouth condition.

My paternal grandmother used to go to the nearby forest to pluck leaves of “Flame Tree”, to prepare leaf plates. Next day she would prepare leaf plates. When she would prepare 1000 plates and 1000 leaf bowls, she would be paid Re. 1/-. She would pay the fees of my father for English School which was Re 1/- per month.

When my grandfather returned to India he had 1000 rupees with him. He got the house repaired by a part of 1000 rupees. My father cleared the  matriculation. He joined the English school as the teacher in English. During this period he had also passed out Philosophy and Sanskrit Grammar from Kashi Vidyapith, which was considered en-par with post graduation.


While working in the English School (S. K. High School Lunavada), M. M. Dave was most popular among teachers and students. The Maharaja of Lunavada kingdom had banned any activity related with freedom struggle. But the Swadeshi Movement cannot be banned. There by during the vacations, M. M. Dave and his friends who were completely dedicated to Nation, used to travel on foot into the villages of Lunavada state and Punch Mahals District, for canvassing for Swadeshi. Since most of them were Brahmins they under the tradition, were not permitted to take cooked food with them, they used to take baked grams.

Of course the Maharaja of Lunavada was not happy with Swadeshi movement within his kingdom. But some freedom fighters were arrogant and may challenge the action of the king, as by the law of the land, one cannot stop Swadeshi Movement, when it was not stopped in British India.


On an occasion, Mahatma Gandhi ended his fast. While addressing a meeting organized for Swadeshi, M. M. Dave informed the public, that “today M. K. Gandhi has ended his fast.” This was considered as a political statement by the Maharaja of the Kingdom, and he dismissed M. M. Dave from the job. His English typing job was also terminated.


Young M. M. Dave was arrogant to some extent. There was a practice to submit a salute to the king when he was passing on the road. All the people on the road side would submit a salute. M. M. Dave used to look at him but never used to salute him. Maharaja knew this, but he used to keep mum. My grandfather told M. M. Dave, “if you do not want to salute the king, it is ok, but in that case you should go inside some street and you can avoid the line of sight with the king. Why should you just insult the king for nothing?”

I think, this was a great advice. One should never invite trouble.


When M. M. Dave was dismissed, his father had become very old according to that period. Probably he was 75 years of age. The jobs in governments were very few. M. M. Dave my father, went to Godhra and some villages which were under British agency rule and did some teaching job.

The salary of a teacher was very poor. That too, in a private school, it was very very poor. But the respect for the teacher was great. Mostly because they were Brahmins, and they were dedicated to their work. MY father had even gone to Hoobli of Dharavad Karnataka for a job for a salary of 4 rupees more.


Once upon a time, my father suffering from a fever of 104F. There was a doctor 8 kilometers away from the village (Jantral of Punch Mahal District). The doctor used to give a good medicine. The medicine was perfect. But the Doctor used to charge 4 Anna (25 paise), for the first time. My father had no money. However he walked 8 kilometers all the way, with 104F fever, and reached to the physicians. My father told him that he was a teacher. He would give the charge, once he would receive the salary. The physician was kind enough. He gave medicine.


While working as a teacher or remaining jobless, he cleared the most difficult course of law and passed out the examination of Advocate. He became Advocate. (The result of the examination was to be 4 to 5 out of one hundred) He joined a lawyer’s firm in Ahmedabad. The firm did not pay him a single penny for the work for whole of the year. Whatsoever earned so far got consumed. My father had started searching a job.

In 1944 the king of Viththal Gadh (विठ्ठल गढ) wanted a person who knew law. M. M. Dave my father applied. He was appointed as Divan (दिवान) of the kingdom with the salary of Rs. 100/- per month. Viththal Gadh was a very small state whose annual income was 1.25 lakhs. The king was calculative. He initially gave Rs. 75/- per month. But after some time he realize the skill of M. M. Dave and started giving Rs. 100/-. King was kind and brave. M. M. Dave resolved all the problems of the kingdom related with nearby kings and the British agency.


In a conference of all the kings of Saurashtra, where a matter related with sports was being discussed. It was a general opinion about the welfare of the people with the least priority to the sports. M. M. Dave justified the importance of the sports, though M. M. Dave had never participated in any sports. The Maharaja of Dhangadhra was very much impressed by his speech and invited to join his kingdom. Since the king of Viththal Gadh had left with no problem, he relieved him.

In 1945-46 M. M. Dave was the minister of publication of government orders in Dhrangadhra kingdom, where his work was remarkable.


On 15th August 1947, India became independent. The Maharaja of Dhrangadhra was the first king to decide to hand over his kingdom to the Union of India. But Vallabhbhai Patel visited Bhavnagar first. Hence the Maharaja of Bhavnagar became the first king to handover the kingdom to the Union of India.


Manubhai Shah the minister (probably the minister of commodities and industry) wanted a person, excellent in languages and legal matters. Somebody told him, and advice to pick up M. M. Dave who was in Dhrangadhra State, though he was considered pro-kingdoms by some people, but in reality he was devoted to the national interest as he had suffered a lot from a kingdom during his early life. He was absorbed as Senior Superintendent thereafter he was made Dy. Director. He drafted the law and the ordinance accurately and skillfully, all the ministries had a very high opinion about him.  


Somewhere in 1951, Bhavnagar Darbar Bank was to be nationalized. M. M. DAVE was deputed to Bhavnagar (Bhavnagar Darbar Bank’s head quarter was Bhavnagar) to look into the legal matters and framing the rules and regulations for the nationalized State Bank of Saurashtra.

At a later stage M. M. Dave was absorbed as the law and administration Officer in StaTe Bank of Saurashtra. In due course he became Dy. General Manager which was next to the General Manager. M. M. Dave retired at the then superannuation age of 58 years, during the period of his services the bank flourished like anything, from 4 branches to 108 branches widely spread in all the big cities of India and all the villages having upto 5000 population in Saurashtra.

On the very next day of his retirement, M. M. Dave got appointment as legal advisor to UCO Bank stationed at Bombay on three years’ contract. Then he worked as Legal advisor to the National Textile Corporation. Then he worked as the Legal Advisor to Gujarat State Textile Corporation.


Wherever he went he had brought revolution. He had a special technique for innovative ideas to reduce the efforts, that too, with foolproof procedure.

He would never become angry, even if the person would had committed repetitive mistake. Of course such occasion would hardly come up, because he would point out the error with some humor,

Though he was a lawyer, his perception on mathematical fundamental principles was clear.

His logic was extraordinary and convincing to make the person agreeable on what had he suggested. Even national union leaders of nationalized banks employees were scared of him.

He was very strict on his principles. There were many persons in Lunavada State whom nobody can purchase at any price. M. M. Dave was falling under that category.

He had convincing solution for each issue,

After the retirement from several service jobs, he and his son Mr. Girish Dave, who was M. Com. LL. B. and advocate and had worked as a law officer in several banks like HDFC, SBI, RBI etc… , opened up a law firm viz. Dave & Girish & Co. Advocates in Mumbai in 1977. This is an international law firm of a special grade.


He being a scholar of Sanskrit had made several translations of law books. Most prominent was the translation of initial portion of Indian Constitution in Sanskrit Verse.

This book was dedicated to the then President of India Dr. Radhakrishnan. On reading this book, Dr. Radhakrishnan wrote him a personal letter for appreciating his work. Based on this, the Government of India later requested him to translate the whole constitution of India in Sanskrit. He did the same somewhere in 1984. He was awarded by the Ministry of Law Union of India.


In 1986 a progressive thrombosis paralyses attacked him. M. M. Dave remained inactive for a week. His power of confidence and determination made him walking independently in a week’s time. In a month’s time he started working from home on all legal matters of his firm. He died peacefully in 1996 on this day, i.e. 2nd April, probably due to the clot.

My father never dressed in payjama. He used to wear Khadi clothes. He never applied soap on his body even while shaving. He used to write articles in English magazines. He was logical but conservative. His concepts were clear. He believed in Castes system.

As a Brahmin he maintained the traditions like praatah Sandhya (प्रातः संध्या), Puajaa (पूजा), Oopavitam (उपवितम़), all ceremonial tradition and rituals. He never touched onion, Garlic, Bit, Carrot … etc. He had hatred towards smoking, drinking liquor and non-veg food. However he had never enforced his beliefs on us.

He was a complete man.


He sacrificed fame to perform his duties towards his family. He could have become a person of national fame, but in that case his family could have been put in hardship. He married at the age of 20 with an oath before Fire that he would take care of his family. He stuck to his oath, and though ready to sacrifice everything for himself, he did not ask his family to suffer to enable him to meet his ambitions. In this way he sacrificed his ambition of fame. He served the nation by his services.

M. M. Dave and Politics:

He was against Nehruvian Congress. But he was also against Raj Narain, Nitish, Laloo, Mamata at that time also. Surprisingly I find no negative on their end at that time. But my father could foresee their aptitude. My father was very much in favor of A. D. Gorwala an Ex. ICS officer who resigned on principle from the Government. A. D. Gorwala had not even cared for his pension benefit. A. D. Gorwala was publishing a magazine “Opinion”. My father used to write articles in “Opinion”.

His idea ran parallel with socialism but he had no faith in Government machinery. He wanted self sufficient units like what M. K. Gandhi wanted  small circles and big circle complement to each other.

M. M. Dave and Religion:

Once upon a time I asked “whether are we  Vaishnava-s (because my grandfather used to read Bhagvatam in some body’s weekly session)? He just showed his displeasure and denied. My eldest brother told me with a smile that we Brahmins do not worship small God. Our God is Devadhidev Maheshvara (देवाधिदेव महेश्वर). My grandfather used to worship Dattatreya (दत्तात्रेय). We have a very good Brass Statue of Dattatreya (दत्तात्रेय) where Shiva (शिव) is at the center. In reality Dattatrey (दत्तात्रेय) is the form of Shiva (शिव). My father believed in Advait (अद्वैत) where the ultimate is Shiva.

I had a lot questions on Aryan Anarya (आर्य अनार्य) Theory. Once I asked my father, “is it that Shiva was the God of Anarya?” He annoyed and told me that Aryan theory is fake theory. There is no mention of any place which is outside India in Vedas.

Shirish Mohanlal Dave

Tags: M. M. Dave, my father, my grandfather, Mahashankar Shastri, Dvivedi (Dave), Lunavada, small Kashi, Sanskrit, Pathshala, Maharaja, Kingdom, Viththal Gadh, Dhrangadhra, Saurashtra, Manubhai Shah, Minister of commodities and Industries, English, Sanskrit, English School, Primary School, Law, Philosophy, Grammar, Kashi Vidyapith, M. K. Gandhi’s movement of Swadeshi, Salute to the king, State Bank of Saurashtra, Law Officer, Legal Advisor, Bhavnagar Darbar Bank, Nationalization




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Before understanding the Marathi manoos, we should recall the history of post Mogul period.

During the last days of Aurengzeb, the Mogul empire was nearly broken up. This could be mainly due to the religious militancy of Aurangzeb. The simplicity of Aurangzeb was not liked by many regional heads. They acted high handedly with Hindus in the name of Aurangzeb. This was against the tradition established by Akbar.

The successors of Aurengzeb were not that bad. But the damage could not be made up. Initially Maratha-s were stronger. then Peshvas became stronger. After the defeat of Bajirao – II, India got divided under small kingdoms. These kingdoms were fighting with each other. British tactfully handled the situation and got direct hold of many regions.


British introduced English educational system and also established universities. Because of many regions had been covered by the kingdoms for local governance, the upper class and upper caste could come up as a white collar service class lot.

Marathi people are falling under this category. Gujarat (present Gujarat State) was made of many kingdoms, thereby the educated people had not to go out of Gujarat for a job. On the contrary due to Marathi ruler Gaekwad, Marathi people were dominating in services in Baroda state. Similarly people of upper caste were dominating in the rest of Gujarat.

Due to development of Mumbai during the period of British, Mumbai had provided good employment opportunities.

Pune and Mumbai were the good education centers.

In Gujarat, Baroda, Ahmedabad and Bhavnagar were education centers.

Calcutta, Madras, Banaras and Allahabad were good education centers in rest of India.

That is why South Indians, Bengali and Bhaiyajis (Hindi speaking regions mainly UP and Bihar) were dominating in government services all over India.

Gujarati educated class was divided in textile, commerce, trade and local education. Hence people from other regions had to come to Gujarat for central government job.

Due to language problem the local government services (services in kingdoms), were not available for other regions, these were available for the locals. However for labor jobs, outsiders had good opportunities.

Similar was the case with Mumbai.



After independence the scenario got changed. Especially in Maharashtra.

The small scale industries were coming up. To meet the demand in white collar and labor jobs, outsiders started coming in Mumbai in large scale. Due to Mumbai being commercial capital, the jobs in Central Government had also been increased. South Indians started getting white collar jobs significantly in Mumbai.

In second half of ninety fifties, Nehruvian Congress noticed that Vote Bank Politics has good opportunities in Mumbai.

Initially Nehruvian Congress tried to divide Mumbai under Gujarati and Marathi as we have seen in part-I.

Nehruvian Congress was partially successful. But this was not enough. Due to heavy number of labor class, the vote bank of Communist was not insignificant. Similar was the case with service class.

To reduce the strength of Communists, Nehruvian Congress produced Datta Samant.

To corner the vote bank of Marathi, Yashvant Rao Chavan produced Shiv Sena.

Sharad Pawar produced MNS to reduce the strength of Shiv Sena.


Yes. So far politics is concern, especially the politics of Nehruvian Congress, NCP, Shiv Sena and MNS is concern, the Issue of Marathi Manoos is political.

The politicians have nothing to do with the interest of Marathi Manoos.


Shiv Sena is of the opinion that Marathi Manoos is getting neglected in employment, we are here to safe guard the interest of Marathi Manoos.

If it is really like that, then what about the infiltrators coming from Bangladesh and living in Mumbai?

Similar is the case of cross border antisocial elements. Daud Gang is working in Mumbai. It is smuggling and resolving disputes of real property-cases, out of court. What should be the role of Shiv Sena?

Is it that Marathi antisocial elements are getting jobs in the network of Daud? Is it that the allotment of huts on the encroached land of the Government, the Sena is one of the parties? What is Sena’s role on the Bangladeshi infiltrators?


If outsiders are capturing the job where the Marathi Manoos has a lien, then who is responsible for this?

The responsibility lies only and only with ruling parties in Maharashtra. The ruling party in Maharashtra is Nehruvian Congress and NCP alliance.


NCP got itself separated from Nehruvian Congress simply because Sharad Pawar has no scope to become PM if he remains in Nehruvian Congress. This is because, “Number One post” is reserved for Nehruvians.

The agenda of Yashavant Rao Chavan and Sharad Pawar has always remained, to share the power. They are the cultural Incarnation of Nehruvian.

But how can multiple incarnation exist simultaneously?

How Rama and Parashurama had existed simultaneously? God can go beyond the principle of physics. Similarly Nehruvian Congress is supposed to exist as multiple parties.

During emergency, Yashvant Rao Chavan had supported Indira Gandhi. When she got defeated, he deserted her party. When she won again he joined the same party.

Sharad has a culture to support any party which can serve his vested interest.

The undivided Shiv Sena had supported Emergency of Indira Gandhi as soon as she imposed.

What is the “Interest of Marathi Manoos”?

Is it not, one type of reservation?

Yes it is a reservation in job.      


Nehruvian Congress has established a culture that the jobs, and mainly the government jobs, are for Charity.

If the governance is corrupted, every system would be failed.

You can keep any types of entrance examination for entry in a service, it would be a failure.



Once upon a time, a cash of one crore rupees was seized from the house of a Chairman of Public service Commission of Punjab. This gives you the appropriate message of functioning of the governance.

Even the GRE examinations which is being conducted by foreign institution, the cases of leakage of question papers occur. Off course it is good that the institution cancels the examinations and conducts re-examinations.

Once upon a time there was a news line on a rate of 2 Crore rupees for becoming a Rail Board Member. This amount was collected from GM West Zone by a Nephew of the then Railway Minister.

Case of Railway recruitment for Class-IV advertisement published in local newspapers of Bihar and not in vernacular papers of Maharashtra.

All the times, the railway stations of zone and or divisions in Western Zone  get flooded with Bihari candidates. Look at as to how many number of Bhaiyaji working in Railways. Are Marathi Manoos not capable to function as Class-IV?

There was a case where MTNL Mumbai had to appoint 40 Stenographers. 39 candidates belonged to Kerala, were selected. A noise had been made by Shiv Sena. Was the noise not justified?

Similar could be the case with non-Marathi Mannoos also. Marathi Manoos too acts like this to some extent.

I was in Prabhadevi MTNL building. I noticed very few Gujaratis even in Class –III. The population of Gujarati in Mumbai is not less than 20 percent. At least 10 percent Gurajari Manoos could have been employed by Marathi Manoos in Mumbai. Gujarati Manoos are almost like Marathi Manoos in Mumbai. That is, they speak Marathi as well.


In the building of Ministry of Communication in Muscat, more percentage of the Gujarati Manoos had been employed by the Muslim ruler of Oman than they are employed in Mumbai.

Now look at the Central Government Offices in any state barring Gujarat and Maharashtra, you would find, all most all local persons right from Class-III to Class-I. You cannot think of a non-local person employed by a local head of the office or industry.

Yes. As for UP and Bihar and North East states, the matter is little different.

In Bihar and UP you will find Bengali officers in good numbers. In North East you will find domination of Bengali speaking officers.

Bengali, Maravadi and Bihari would employ their own people in their shops or restaurants.  Whereas a Gujarati would employ locals. That is why Khasi (the local people known as Khasi) would not trouble Gujarati during local riots.  

As for North East states, the officers would say; “local people are lazy, and they do not like to work.”

As for Gujarat, the outsiders say: “Gujarati-s do not know English.”

But one should know about the English of Non-Gujarati peoples too. It is not remarkable. In fact the shortage of good correspondents is a worldwide phenomenon.  

I can quote a lot examples on the English of Non-Gujarati-s. An ITS (Indian Telecom Services means who are recruited directly after passing a competitive examination) officer who once upon a time was in Material Management in the Directorate of Communication, Sanchar Bhavan, New Delhi. Since he was in Material Management, he was supposed to be good in English. This is because for constructing the specifications, in a tender, one has to be good in drafting. This officers was transferred to North East. The reason of transfer was not his English.

I found him, not able to write a letter promptly. He used to take full one day to prepare a final draft of a letter of one page, paper size A4.

I have worked under a lot ITS officers. Hardly 5 percent were worth for their post. I would like to mention only 3 remarkable Officers. One was excellent in every field. Another was excellent in strategy. Third one was good in relations.

First two were ITS officers, but they were Departmental Outsiders. Departmental outsider means they were already working in a lower post (Class III), but had been appointed to the cadre, as they passed the examination of ITS.

The government is run by IAS, ITS, IPS, IFS etc… officers. Their capability is nearly the same. Nearly the same, means they are not worth for the post they hold. If Narendra Modi is to scrap these cadres, it is not bad.

But what is the answer to the Subject issue “Marathi Manoos”?

It is only the mismanagement of bureaucrats and self-centeredness of politicians.

Why the states could not do development of their own?

Shiv Sena and MNS leaders are making Marathi Manoos fool. If this is not true then they themselves are fool.

What is the difference between a stray dog and a lion?

If you hit a dog by throwing a stone, the dog would run towards the stone. Lion would deal with the person who threw the stone.

Shiv Sena and MNS leaders are like stray dogs. They attack Hindi speaking entrants, instead of hitting Nehruvian Congress and NCP leaders.

The cause of unemployed Marathi Manoon, is Nehruvian Congress, its culturally allied leaders in UP, Bihar, Bengal and Maharashtra (NCP).

The unemployed persons coming from UP, Bihar, Bengal etc.. are not at any fault. They are starving there. They leave their homes, they leave their relatives, they leave their friends, when they come to Maharashtra or Gujarat. Their intention is not to trouble Marathi and Gujarati Manoos.


The water level in UP, Bihar, Bengal is not below 15 feet. Bihar has coal for 400 years. Bengal has forest. All of them have man power. What do you need for productions? Kashmir is called Heaven on the Earth. North East is called the land of Kuber the wealthiest king of India.

Marathi Manoos individually, are not bad. This is just like Vora and Khoja among Muslims who are not bad. But Muslim leaders defame the whole community. Similar is the case with Manoos of UP and Bihar.

Yes. As for infiltrators, the government should act high handedly.

Suppose, the development in India becomes very fast, and it is balanced also, then what should be the policy on Son of the Soil?

You should follow the policy of Gujarati business man. Employ the best suitable person on merits.

Even in Government services, if one is sincere, intelligent and hard worker, he/she would be in heavy demand. He/she would not be identify by a region to which he/she belongs. This is true only if the next superior is not self-centered.


In Nehruvian Congress, by virtue of birth in Nehru family, the Number One power post is 100% reserved for Nehruvian progeny. This has produced parties with similar culture, in many states. This has spoiled the social and working culture in India.

Shirish Mohanlal Dave

Tags: Aurangzeb, Mogul, Maratha, Marathi, English, Education, King, kingdom, Upper, Class, Caste, job, employment, university, Mumbai, Calcutta, Madras, Bhavnagar, Ahmedabad, Pune, Banaras, Allahabad, Gujarat, UP, Bihar, Bengal, North East, Maharashtra, Peshva, Gaekwad, Baroda, Datta Samant, Shiv Sena, MNS, NCP, Nehruvian Congress, Sharad Pawar, Chavan, antisocial

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Gandhi had expressed that he was deadly against partition.

British had sent Crips Commission who was to discuss the partition conditions. It was not to discuss any other options.

MK Gandhi who was the invited member to participate to help the Congress in presenting the case as to how to achieve freedom. But the way the British framed the basic conditions for independence was not acceptable to MK Gandhi. MK Gandhi asked Congress working committee to pass a resolution to boycott the Cripps Commission.

The Congress members did not agree to the advice of MK Gandhi. At that stage MK Gandhi said loudly that had been my Subhas here, he would have definitely obeyed my advice of boycotting the commission. MK Gandhi further said, when the committee members are determined to accept the partition, I cannot be a member of that committee. He boycotted the commission by resigning from the commission. I would not be a party in dividing India. Then MK Gandhi said “No body in Congress is ready to discuss with me and even no body in Congress is ready to hear me”.

This was the time when the leaders who were outside the Congress, should have stand by the side of Mahatma Gandhi firmly. But they did not. They were either divided or confused. No body stood by the side of MK Gandhi to support him.


The call of “Direct Action” given by Jinnah had made most leaders to realize the inevitability of division of India. People were also of the opinion that there was no option but to accept partition.

MK Gandhi too realized the necessity of partition, at that moment of time under “the Call of Direct Action” and the decisive approach of British Government and Muslim league leaders. Jinna was of the opinion that Muslims are different culture and there by different nation. Muslim needs a separate nation. Congress and MK Gandhi were not for to accept the theory of two nations. Once Gandhi asked Jinna if you become Hindu, in what way your culture would be different than a Hindu. Jinna could not reply to MK Gandhi. It was an historical truth that the origin of most Muslims in India is Hindu. Those who are not, they have also adopted the Hindu culture.  

What were the other options for independence of India?


What meaning of “Federal Union”?

The meaning of Federal Union was to be worked out. As a simple meaning of Federal Union was a Union of Pakistan and India. Pakistan and India were to exists under the Federal Union, but India and Pakistan were to get autonomy in certain fields of governance. It was possible to pressurize British on the option of “Federal Un ion” had the proposal been made unanimously.

The British was firm in saying that the independence means to leave India with making proper arrangement and provision in a treaty that shows that they have cared to provide security and rights of all the communities of India.


The characters in dealing with the proposal for Federal Union were JL Nehru, Sardar Patel, MK Gandhi and Mhammeda Ali Jinna. It was not possible and advisable to call them at one place and to conduct the discussion. This was because it was a matter of confidentiality. Its premature disclosure can create a lot of problems. British can exploit the matter for instigating different community leaders indirectly to play decisive role. Bhulabhai Desai was the messenger. He was meeting and trying for consensus with Jinna, MK Gandhi, JL Nehru and Sardar Patel to make them agreeable on Federal Proposal.

Bhulabhai Desai met Sardar Patel and MK Gandhi. They were agreed to it. Then Bhulabhai Desai met Jinna. Jinna too agreed to it in principle. Bhulabhai Desai met JL Nehru. He totally disagreed to the proposal of Federal Union. JL Nehru out rightly rejected the proposal.

MK Gandhi was ready for Federal Union. It was the Semi Undivided India. i.e. It was united India. It was also divided India.

Then Sardar Patel went to JL Nehru to understand as to why had JL Nehru straight way rejected the idea of Federal Union.

Sardar Patel learnt that JL Nehru had a thought that it was highly possible that MK Gandhi would select Jinna as the head of Federal Union and he would have to work under Jinna. JL Nehru had allergy of Jinna. (Earlier at one stage Nehru had declared that if Jinna agrees to Undivided India, then he would not appoint Jinna even as his peon.)

However Sardar Patel reviewed the other factors. These were about the character and likely aptitude of the kings and kingdoms. Many of the kings were greedy and prone to get instigated for their own freedom and conditions. It was a matter of a lengthy and time consuming frame work for preparing accession or amalgamation conditions. Besides this the presence of decisive British was also there. They were keen to instigate self-centered and communal leaders to divide India in many other pieces. That is why MK Gandhi and Sardar Patel thought to divide India in two nations to avoid India, breaking in multiple pieces.


India, Pakistan and the kingdoms. As for the people of Kingdoms, they may decide at a later stage either they would remain as an independent kingdom or they may conduct plebiscite as to affiliate with whom. British said “We would provide the independence to the kings for their kingdom. We give them two option. They can remain independent. They can have accession either with India or Pakistan by adopting a fair plebiscite.”

MK Gandhi was of the opinion, that it was the Muslim leaders who were keen to divide India. As for Congress, the leaders were not ready to delay the independence any more. British were ever ready to spoil the situation. Gandhi and Sardar thought, it would be better to accept the independence with divided India. In democracy, the real power belongs to the people. It would be better to try for reunion at later stage.

MK Gandhi had foreseen the likely massacre to some extent after partition. He tried his best to prevent them and to build unity. He had gone on fast to establish peace. The peace was urged to both the people of both the communities. But some took it one sided without going through the details.

MK Gandhi wanted to visit Pakistan to try to reunite the nation. He wanted to see that the peace get established at least in Delhi. Because if both the community have no faith in each other they cannot reunite.


MK Gandhi was very much upset, when he learnt that the leaders of Congress who belonged to the region of Pakistan had run to India instead of staying in Pakistan for enforcing harmony with Muslims.

When Gandhi aksed them, the Congress leaders said “our life was not safe”.

MK Gandhi said, “So what? I have taught you to be brave and fearless. I have taught you to be ready to sacrifice everything. I have taught you to die. I have not taught you to run away. You are all coward. Had you been killed there, I would have been pleased a lot. I would have danced on hearing the news of your death. I would have really danced a lot.”

Now those who are having mindset to abuse MK Gandhi, they take the above Spell outs as that has been spelled out before Hindus who ran towards India. In fact the words were spelled out before Congress leaders of Pakistan.

MK Gandhi wanted the Congress leaders to remain in Pakistan. Had the people of Congress been nationalist, they would have remained in Pakistan. They could have formed a political party named “Pakistan National Congress”.

Look at the Muslim leaders. Many of them remained in India and formed an Indian Muslim League. The decisive Nehruvian Congress has joined the hands with the Indian Muslim League since 1958. There are lots of Muslim Organizations in India. It is only Nehruvian Congress who instigated Muslims to remain isolated from Hindus.

Soon MK Gandhi experienced that many Congress leaders were exerting pressure on him to get some position in the new government. Not only this but the leaders who to had deserted Pakistan, and had come to India to share the power. MK Gandhi publically declared to dissolve Congress.

“Diary of Last three months of Gandhi in Delhi” written by Manuben Gandhi, provides the full information on the role played by MK Gandhi. There is a day to day diary of MK Gandhi’s last three months in Delhi before he was killed. Manuben Gandhi has given report day to day and word to word. Those who read MK Gandhi would never carry a feeling that MK Gandhi had any attitude to appease Muslims and Muslims leaders. Instead he appears to be deadly against Muslim leaders. He has at one stage said that if Pakistan is not capable to provide proper securities to Hindus, India should attack on Pakistan and take over Pakistan.


Yes. It was JL Nehru who was more dangerous.

No provincial party committee had suggested the name of JL Nehru for PM’s post. Nehru declared before MK Gandhi that he want to head the government, then Gandhi told him that none of the provincial party committee and the CM has suggested his name.

It was the moral duty of JL Nehru to withdraw his name. But instead of doing that, he kept mum and silently left the room. MK Gandhi thought that Nehru is likely to do some adventure. This adventure would break the Congress party at that crucial stage when the separatists including British were working hard to weaken the Congress. MK Gandhi called Sardar Patel and got an assurance that Sardar Patel would see that Congress remained united.

It is needless to say that JL Nehru had already created a socialistic Group within Congress with a freedom to abuse other Congress leaders like Rajgopalachari, Sardar Patel etc…

MK Gandhi knew that in democracy nothing is final. Let JL Nehru be the PM, till the general elections under new constitution gets conducted.

But unfortunate to India, MK Gandhi was murdered, Sardar died before general elections. JL Nehru used media to divert the attention of public from his failure in external affairs, his failures in planning and wisdom-less vision. It is a matter of surprise and a matter of research as to how the learned people made no noise.

JL Nehru had become intolerant and autocrat. He became hungry of power. JL Nehru himself has written this, for himself to have a fun on himself.

A good opportunity had come, to have Federal Union. Iskandar Mirza had proposed for “Federal Union, in 1955. It was a good and proper time when everything was OK locally. The people who left their property in Pakistan were alive and this issue was also alive. Pakistan was ready to resolve this issue bilaterally. But JL Nehru indecently rejected the proposal of “Federal Union” without discussing it at any level.


The learned people including the learned people talking too much till date for passing blame on MK Gandhi for partition. They are feeling great for themselves for this, but they kept mum instead of calling for a strong agitation for Federal Union in 1955. Federal Union was the first step toward Undivided India. Most of the leaders who had abused Congress and MK Gandhi for passing the blame of dividing India, were very well alive and capable to launch wide spread agitation in favor of “Federal Union” in nineteen fifties. They never agitated for Federal Union, even that proposal had come up from the Pakistan. Not only this, these leaders had kept mum even on the absolute blunders of JL Nehru on external affairs related with Tibet, China and Burma in nineteen fifties.

Was it difficult for them? Was it that these were political issue and thereby they (RSS) cannot take part in politics?

It was never difficult for them. It was not a politics. It was related with and great concern with humanity and national interest. Despite of this they behaved like deaf and dumb.

It was not that there were no agitation during 1950-1960. It was not that that RSS was less popular. In fact at most of the school compound and street, RSS was running RSS Shaakhaa. Golvalkar was also alive. A lot of other agitations took place during 1951 to 1960. But none tried either for Federal Union nor against the Himalayan Blunders of JL Nehru.

The victory of Nehruvian Congress in 1952 was fraudulent. The victory of Nehruvian Congress was a fraud. But the defeat of pro-RSS parties made their leaders weak and frustrated. They achieve some confidence only when Nava Nirman agitation unseated the Nehruvian Congress party in 1974. The Nehruvian Congress party had earlier 140 seats in Assembly out of 168 in 1972 assembly elections.

It is needless to say that it was Jai Prakash Narain a veteran Mahatma Gandhian who lead the agitation against Nehruvian Congress and defeated Nehruvian Congress badly in 1977. The inaction and frustration of worthless leaders of RSS, VHP, BD and some leaders like Advani, Sushma, Murlimanohar gave life to Nehruvian Congress.



Shirish Mohanlal Dave

Tags: Nehruvian Congress, Federal Union, kings, kingdom, Cripp’s Commission, Gandhi, Bhulabhai Desai, Sardar Patel, RSS, VHP, BD, leaders

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